How to Understand Text Labels
Home
Blog
Wiki
Videos and Downloads
Newsletter
Follow Us
Related Tags
3d plot
3d plots
anova
axis
big data
continuous variables
data analysis
data mining
data modeling
data storage
database query
general linear models
graphs
logistic regression
multiple variables
rats
regression model
scatterplot
statistica
statistica 12
statistica visual basic
statistics
svb
workspace
z-axis
ARTICLE TABLE OF CONTENTS
Statistica - Wiki
Best Practices
Add Variable To Sum Rows in STATISTICA
Box-Cox Transformation
Cannot Draw Graph Solutions
Components of Variance in STATISTICA
Creating a Regression Control Chart in STATISTICA
Creating an Interactive Analysis Using STATISTICA Enterprise
Creating Pattern Variables with a Macro
Creating Patterned Variables Using AutoFill
Customizing the V-Axis of a Ternary Contour Graph
Data Filtering in STATISTICA Enterprise
Distance between Groups using Scatter with Error Plots
Distributions and Simulation in STATISTICA
Formatting Marked Cells in a STATISTICA Spreadsheet
How Dates are Represented in STATISTICA Data Files
How to Access Data via STATISTICA Macro
How to Add a New Plot Axis
How to Assign Keyboard Shortcut Keys
How to Compare Yearly Patterns Graphically
How to Copy/Print Results Summaries
How to Create a Simple Message Box and an "If..Then..End If" Block in STATISTICA Visual Basic
How To Create Random Subset of Your Data
How to Customize Axis Labels to Show Logical Date Intervals
How to Customize Boundaries in a Histogram
How to Customize Designs in ANOVA/MANOVA and General Linear Models (GLM)
How to Customize the STATISTICA User Interface Background
How to Deploy Models Using SVB Nodes
How to Detect Outliers Graphically and Analytically
How to Estimate a Regression Model Subject to Parameter Constraints
How to Export a STATISTICA Graph to another Application
How to Find Confidence Intervals for a Single Proportion
How To Find Critical Values for Statistical Tests
How To Generate Random Normal Distribution Numbers
How to Get the Most Use from STATISTICA Microscrolls
How To Get X,Y Values for Regression Line
How to Group Data into Specified Percentile Categories using STATISTICA Visual Basic
How to Import an Excel File to STATISTICA
How to Import Data from Microsoft Access into STATISTICA
How to Interpret Statistical Analysis Results
How to Label Bivariate Histograms with Frequencies
How to Make Model Deployment Easier than Ever with New Workspace Nodes
How to Most Efficiently Store Your Data
How to Navigate the STATISTICA Workspace
How to Perform a Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test for One Sample
How to Plot Graphs on Multiple Scales
How to prepare colored box plots for data exploration and visualization
How to Prevent the "Are You Sure" Dialog from Being Displayed
How to Print More Than One Item from a Workbook without Printing the Entire Workbook
How to Query Data with the Advanced Query Builder
How to Record an Analysis Macro
How to Remove Menu Commands Using the Classic Menus Interface
How to Restructure an Excel Spreadsheet for STATISTICA Analyses
How to Run an Analysis with R Using a STATISTICA Spreadsheet
How to Show Grouping in Scatterplots
How to Show Grouping in Scatterplots-
How to Specify Properties for Point Markers in STATISTICA Graphs
How to Standardize the Z-Axis Color Scheme across Multiple 3D Graphs
How To Sum Rows in STATISTICA
How to Summarize Data in STATISTICA
How to Transform Variables Using the Box-Cox Method
How to Understand Text Labels
How to Unstack/Stack Data in Statistica
How to Use Analysis Output as Input for a New Analysis or Graph
How to Use Breakdown Analysis for Non-Factorial Tables
How to use Breakdown Analysis for Non-Factorial Tables-
How to Use Integer Categorization for Real-Time Integer Spacing with Graphs
How to Use STATISTICA Projects
How to Use the Results of One Analysis to Perform Another Analysis
How to Use the Statistical Advisor
How to Use Variable Bundles in STATISTICA
How to use workspace node customization
How to View Multiple Panes in a Data Spreadsheet
Including Polynomial Terms in Regression
Incorporating Graph Customization Automation in Existing SVB Macros
Line Plot or Scatterplot?
Monte Carlo and Sample Size
Odds Ratios in Generalized Linear/Nonlinear (GLZ) Models
Opening Document Objects in STATISTICA
Presentation Quality Graphics in STATISTICA
Re-Run/Resume Analysis from a Workbook
Saving Graphics with Custom Settings for Dots Per Inch
Saving Styles Applied to Graphs
Standardizing the Z Axis Color Scheme across Multiple 3-D Graphs
Theory of Linear Models
User-Defined Variability Plots
Using Case States to Color or Mark by Category in a Graph
Using Contingency Tables to Compute Chi Square Tests for Independence
Using Transparency on Scatterplots to Display Point Density
Visualize Data with Color Coding
Why Use MSPC?
Why Use Ternary Graph?
Working with Variables in STATISTICA
X-Axis Label, Finding Emma Lu
Options
Share
Page Details
First published by
DELL-Statistica
When:
10 Oct 2014 8:13 AM
Last revision by
DELL-Statistica
When:
10 Oct 2014 8:14 AM
Revisions:
2
Comments:
0
Search
Statistica - Wiki
Subscribe
Article
History
How to Understand Text Labels
Statistica - Wiki
You may have seen text labels mentioned in an analysis warning such as this one:
Or you may have encountered unexpected results in an analysis or graph such as seen here:
In
STATISTICA
, text data can be stored either as text or with text labels. When text data is entered in a spreadsheet, each unique text string can be assigned a numeric code. So the data are stored both as a number, which is hidden, and the text we see. In this article, we will discuss what text labels are and some of the benefits and common questions associated with text data and the use of text labels.
What Are Text Labels?
Create a
new spreadsheet
and enter some text in the first cell. When you press ENTER, you are prompted to designate how this text should be treated. The last two options are to
Enable Text Labels
and
Convert to a text only variable
.
Select the
Enable Text Labels
option button, and click
OK
.
Select the
Data
tab, and in the
Variables
group, click
Text Labels
to display the
Text Labels Editor
for variable 1. Here we can view the numeric associations for the text entered.
In the global options of
STATISTICA
(
Options
dialog box,
Navigation/Defaults
tab), you can
customize
the start point for numeric associations for text labels. By default, 101 is the start point. So, while in the spreadsheet we see the text
Apple
, this cell is also associated with the number 101.
Benefits
Some of the benefits to this text-to-number association are:
Ordinal data can be represented by numbers that show their order as well as text values that have more meaning. For example, enter high, medium, and low stored as 3, 2, 1 respectively. Now their natural order is preserved, but also the more descriptive text is present, too. The variable with text labels can be analyzed either as categorical or continuous.
Easy data entry. The numeric associations can easily be modified and become a shortcut in data entry, i.e., when typing in the data, I can type in 1 and that value will automatically show
Low
from my text labels.
Common Questions Associated with Text Labels
Following are answers to common questions from
STATISTICA
users when text labels are employed in their data.
When a variable is selected for analysis as a continuous variable (in basic descriptive statistics for example) and that variable has text labels, the following warning dialog box is displayed.
This does not mean the analysis can’t proceed. It simply brings to your attention the fact that the analysis you are about to perform may be suspect. Consider the previous example where 1 to 3 represent low to high. We can compute a mean, standard deviation, etc., on this data because the numbers 1 to 3 are used in the mathematical formulas. This warning dialog box prompts you to examine if this analysis makes sense with the data you have selected. If so, select the option to continue. If not, you can further explore the variables containing text labels with the
Scan Spreadsheet
option.
In numeric data, suppose you inadvertently typed in some text, or on import, perhaps the row of variable names were incorrectly read in as the first row of data. Now, a text label and number combination is used in this column. Deleting the offending case is only one step in fixing this issue. The text label, although not used, is still there. This will cause the warning dialog above to be displayed in analysis. The software does not know that the text label was a mistake. Using the
Text Label Editor
, the unwanted text label can be removed.
Another potential problem stemming from accidental text labels is unexpected text popping up in your numeric data. Because of a data entry or import error, a number is assigned a text label. Now, when that number naturally occurs in the data, the number is hidden by the unwanted text label. The root cause of the issue and the fix are the same, but the symptoms are different.
One final possible symptom is unexpected values in graphs and analyses.
This plot shows what happens when numeric data, on a scale of 0 to 1, are plotted in a histogram, but one case has an unexpected text label. The numeric value associated with the text in this graph is the default 101. The data look skewed, as a very extreme outlier is present. This is simply a data entry error that is masked by text labels. Using the
Text Label Editor
, you can further explore this error.
Conclusion
When properly understood and used correctly, text labels are a good tool for data storage. This understanding of the way text labels work can help all
STATISTICA
users to improve their data integrity.
Like
0